Ugc Net History Free Study Material,Notes & Mock Test




  1. Wonder that was India – A.L. Bhasham.
    2. Ancient India Social and Culture – Luniya
    3. Ancient India – an introductory outline – D.N.Jha.
    4. An Advanced History of India – R.C. Majumdar, H.C. Raychaudhurai, – Kalikinkar Datta.
    5. Ancient India – L.Mukherjee


  1. Advanced study in the History of Medival India – Volume I, II, III J.L. Mehta
    2. Medival India – Volume I & II Satish Chandra
    3. Wonder that was India – Rizzvi
    4. Medival India – L. Mukherjee


  1. Modern Indian History – Grover and Mehta
    2. A struggle for Independence – Bipin Chandra
    3. Freedom Struggle – Bipin Chandra
    4. Modern India – L. Mukherjee
    VIII, IX, X,XI,XII History


  1. Indian History – Krishna Reddy
    2. Indian History – Agnihotri
    3. Competition Wizard Workbook.
    4. IGNOU Material
    5. Y.D.Mishra




1-NCERT (11th)

2-The Advanced History of India – Majumdar, Raychaudhuri & Datta

3-The wonder that was India – A. L Basham

4-Indus Civilization – (a) IGNOU booklet no. 2

5-The rise of civilization of India and Pakistan – Bridget and Raymond Allchin

6-Ancient India in historical outline (Revised and enlarged edition – 98) – D.N. Jha

7-Mauryan : Ashoka and the decline of mouryan empire – Romila Thapar

8-Indian Feudalism – R.S. Sharma


1-NCERT (11th)

2-The Advanced History of India – Majumdar, Raychaudhuri & Datta

3-Social life and cultural life of both Delhi Sultanate and Mughal India – J.L. Mehta

4-A history of South India – K. A. Nilakanta Shastri

5-IGNOU material (specially on agriculture and agrarian relations and culture)


1-NCERT (12th)

2-A new look into the modern Indian history – B.L Grover

3-Freedom struggle – Bipin Chandra, Varun Dey and Amlesh Tripathy (NBT)

4-India’s struggle for independence – Bipin Chandra

5-Modern India – Sumit Sarkar

6-IGNOU material (specially on freedom struggle)






Indian literary sources

Source Author Language Date Notes
Veda Samhitas Various Sanskrit 1st m.


Gives account of life of people in addition to philosophy, religion etc
Arthashastra Chanakya Sanskrit 4th c. BCE Covers Mauryan period under Chandragupta Maurya

Treatise on statecraft, economy and military strategy

Sangam literature Various Tamil c. 600 BCE – 300 CE Primarily Dealt with everyday themes

Foreign literary sources

Source Author Language Date Notes
Indika Megasthenes Greek 4th c. BCE Ambassador of Seleucus I to court of Chandragupta Maurya

Used by later writers Strabo and Arrian

Describes geography, politics, various kingdoms, caste system

Indica Arrian Greek 1st c. CE Considered one of most important sources about India

Covers travel of Alexander’s officer Nearchus from India to Babylon

Covers geography, esp. Indus and Ganges

Describes social structure

Describes seven castes, physical appearance, absence of slavery

Used Indika (Megasthenes) as source

Geographica Strabo Greek 1st c. CE Descriptive history of people and places all over the world

Consists of 17 volumes of material

Fa-Hien Chinese Around 400 CE Travelled to India/Ceylon to obtain Buddhist scriptures

Epigraphical sources

Note that more than 55% of epigraphical inscriptions in India are in Tamil

Inscription Location Attributed to


Indus valley inscriptions IVC c. 2600 – 1900 BCE Indus script remains undeciphered
Edicts of Asoka All over India Asoka

3rd c. BCE

In Praktrit, Sanskrit, Greek


Heliodorus pillar Besnagar

(Madhya Pradesh)

c. 110 BCE In Sanskrit (Brahmi)

Dedicated by Heliodorus to god Vasudeva

Heliodorus was the Ambassador of Indo-Greek king Antialcidas to court of Sunga king Bhagabhadra

Describes relationship b/w Sungas and Indo-Greeks

Hathigumpha incription Udayagiri




(150 BCE)

In Prakrit (Brahmi script)

Main source of info about Kharavela

Mentions conflict with Demetrius

Mentions conflict with Uttarapatha

Rabatak inscription Rabatak



127-151 CE

In Bactrian (Greek script)

Describes Kushan dynasty

Halmidi inscription Halmidi


c. 450 CE Oldest inscription in Kannada (Brahmi script)


Important ancient Sanskrit literature

Work Category Author


Mahabharata Epic Vyasa
Ramayana Epic Valmiki
Ashtadhyayi Treatise on grammar Panini

(5th -4th c. BCE)

One of the earliest known grammars of Sanskrit
Nirukta Treatise on grammar Yaksa
Mrichakatika Play Shudraka

(2nd c. BCE)

Set in Pataliputra

Hindi film Utsav was based on this

Karnabhara, Charudatta Play Bhasa

(1st BCE – 4thCE)

Bhasa wrote about 13 plays

He is considered to be one of most important Sanskrit authors (after Kalidasa)

Urubhanga Play Bhasa Based on Mahabharata

Depicts story of Duryodhana after fight with Bhima

Madhyamavyayoga Play Bhasa Based on the Mahabharata
Malavikagnimitram Play Kalidasa

(4th -5th CE)

Gupta period

Tells the story of King Agnimitra falling in love with servant girl Malavika

Agnimitra was the son and successor to Pushyamitra Sunga

Abhijanasakuntalam Play Kalidasa Tells story of king Dushyanta and his marriage to Shankuntala

Considered to be Kalidasa’s most popular play

Vikramaorvasiyam Play Kalidasa Story of king Pururavas in love with celestial Urvashi
Raghuvamsa Poetry Kalidasa Kings of Raghu dynasty
Kumarasambhava Poetry Kalidasa Story of birth of Karthikeya
Rtusamhara Poetry Kalidasa Describes six seasons using context of love
Meghaduta Poetry Kalidasa Story of a Yaksha sending a message to his lover through a cloud

One of Kalidasa’s most popular poems

Ratnavali Play Harshavardhana

(590-647 CE)

Story of king Udayana and princess Ratnavali

Contains one of the earliest references to festival Holi

Nagananda Play Harshavardhana Describes prince Jimutavahana’s self-sacrifice to save serpents
Priyadarsika Play Harshavardhana
Kiratarjuniya Poetry Bharavi Describes contest b/w Arjuna and lord Shiva
Shishupala Vadha Poetry Magha

Important ancient literature in Tamil

Note that Sangam literature itself contains about 2400 poems by more than 470 poets. For obvious reasons, not all of them can be listed here

Work Category Author Notes
Ettuthokai Poetry Various

(600 BCE-

300 BCE)

Part of Sangam literature

Ettuthokai contains 8 anthologies:

Ainkurunuru, Akananuru, Purananuru, Kalittokai, Kuruntokai, Narrinai, Paripatal, Patirrupattu

Each of these anthologies in turn contain hundreds of poems by multiple authors

Deals with two themes: Akam (personal life) and Puram (war, politics)

See here for more information on the Ettuthokai

Pathupattu Poetry Various Part of Sangam literature

Pathupattu contains 10 idylls (mid length books):

Tirumurugattruppatai, Kurinjipattu, Malaipatukatam, Maturaikkanji, Mullaipattu, Netunalvatai, Pattinappalai, Perumpanatrupatai, Porunaratruppatai, Sirupanatrupatai

Deals mainly with themes of nature

See here for more information on Pathupattu

Tolkappiyam Grammar Tolkappiyar Earliest available work of Tamil literature
Aimperumkappiyam Epics Various Collection of five large narrative epics

The five epics were: Silappadhigaram, Manimegalai, Sivaka Chintamani, Valayapathi and Kundalakesi

Specific epics described below

Silappadhigaram Epic Ilango Adigal

(1st c. CE)

Describes story of Kannagi in her quest to save husband Kovalan

Describes in detail life, politics, trade, settlements of Greeks etc

Story evolves in themes of three: three kingdoms, three heroes, three heroines etc

Considered one of most important ancient Tamil literature

Manimegalai Epic Seethalai Sathanar

(1st-2nd c. CE)

Story of Manimegalai, daughter of Kovalan

Sequel to Silappadhigaram

Sivaka Chintamani Epic Tirutakkatevar Story of man who becomes king and then renounces throne
Valayapathi Epic Unknown Work lost
Kundalakesi Epic Nagakuthanar Original work lost, only fragments survive

Supposedly describes story of Buddhist monk Kundalakesi

Tirukkural Ethics Thiruvalluvar Couplets of ethics

Contains 1330 couplets

Thirukkural remains the book translated into most number of languages in the world


Work Subject Author Notes
Vedanga Jyotisha Astrology Lagadha

(1st c. BCE)

Describes rules for tracking motion of sun and moon
Yavanajataka Astrology Sphujidvaja

1st-2nd c. CE)

Translated it mean “Nativity as per the Greeks”

It is a collection of astrology-related ideas borrowed from Greek world

Gives rules for building horoscopes

Surya Siddhanta Astronomy Establishes rules to determine motions of stellar objects
Paulisa Siddhanta

(Doctrine of Paul)

Astronomy Based on works of Paul of Alexandria

(c. 378 CE)

Romaka Siddhanta

(Doctrine of the Romans)

Astronomy Based on works of Rome

It is the only Indian work based on the tropical system

Vasishta Siddhanta Astronomy Attributed to sage Vasishta
Panchasiddhantika Astronomy Varahamihira

(c. 550 CE)

Work that compares five treatises on astronomy viz. Surya Siddhanta, Paulisa Siddhanta, Romaka Siddhanta, Vasishta Siddhanta and Paitamaha Siddhanta
Sulba sutras Mathematics Baudhayana (c. 800 BCE), Apasthamba (c. 600 BCE), Katyayana (c. 200 BCE) Baudhayana enumerated the Pythagoras theorem. He also described square root of 2 and geometric shapes such as squares and rectangles

Apasthamba and Katyayana developed these principles further

Chandahsastra Mathematics Pingala

(4th-2nd c. BCE)

First known description of binary numeral system in the world

Also describes Pascal’s triangle, binomial theorem and Fibonacci numbers

Aryabhatiya Astronomy, mathematics Aryabhata

(c 522 CE)

Introduced decimal value notation

Describes heliocentric model of solar system

Explained lunar and solar eclipses

Gave duration of one year as 365 days 6 hrs 12 min 30 sec

Gave value of pi (3.1416)

Correctly calculated earth’s circumference as 24,835 miles

Aryabhata’s principles are still in use for fixing the Hindu calendar Panchanga

Mahabhaskariya Mathematics, astronomy Bhaskara I

(c. 600 – 680 CE)

Representation of numbers in positional system

Solved Wilson’s theorem and Pell equation

Brahmasputasiddhanta Mathematics, astronomy Brahmagupta

(c. 630 CE)

Describes solution of linear equation

Solve system of simultaneous indeterminate equations

Sum of series

Introduced the concept of zero

Formula for cyclic quadrilaterals

Rebutted the idea that moon is farther from earth than the sun


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