Ugc Net History Free Study Material,Notes & Mock Test

RECOMMENDED BOOKS FOR UGC HISTORY

 

BOOKS ON ANCIENT INDIA

  1. Wonder that was India – A.L. Bhasham.
    2. Ancient India Social and Culture – Luniya
    3. Ancient India – an introductory outline – D.N.Jha.
    4. An Advanced History of India – R.C. Majumdar, H.C. Raychaudhurai, – Kalikinkar Datta.
    5. Ancient India – L.Mukherjee

BOOKS ON MEDIVAL INDIA

  1. Advanced study in the History of Medival India – Volume I, II, III J.L. Mehta
    2. Medival India – Volume I & II Satish Chandra
    3. Wonder that was India – Rizzvi
    4. Medival India – L. Mukherjee

BOOKS ON MODERN INDIA

  1. Modern Indian History – Grover and Mehta
    2. A struggle for Independence – Bipin Chandra
    3. Freedom Struggle – Bipin Chandra
    4. Modern India – L. Mukherjee
    NCERT BOOKS
    VIII, IX, X,XI,XII History

HISTORY BOOKS GUIDE

  1. Indian History – Krishna Reddy
    2. Indian History – Agnihotri
    3. Competition Wizard Workbook.
    4. IGNOU Material
    5. Y.D.Mishra

REFERENCE BOOKS OVERALL

 

BOOKS ON ANCIENT INDIA

1-NCERT (11th)

2-The Advanced History of India – Majumdar, Raychaudhuri & Datta

3-The wonder that was India – A. L Basham

4-Indus Civilization – (a) IGNOU booklet no. 2

5-The rise of civilization of India and Pakistan – Bridget and Raymond Allchin

6-Ancient India in historical outline (Revised and enlarged edition – 98) – D.N. Jha

7-Mauryan : Ashoka and the decline of mouryan empire – Romila Thapar

8-Indian Feudalism – R.S. Sharma

BOOKS ON MEDIEVAL INDIA

1-NCERT (11th)

2-The Advanced History of India – Majumdar, Raychaudhuri & Datta

3-Social life and cultural life of both Delhi Sultanate and Mughal India – J.L. Mehta

4-A history of South India – K. A. Nilakanta Shastri

5-IGNOU material (specially on agriculture and agrarian relations and culture)

BOOKS ON MODERN INDIA

1-NCERT (12th)

2-A new look into the modern Indian history – B.L Grover

3-Freedom struggle – Bipin Chandra, Varun Dey and Amlesh Tripathy (NBT)

4-India’s struggle for independence – Bipin Chandra

5-Modern India – Sumit Sarkar

6-IGNOU material (specially on freedom struggle)

 

ANCIENT INDIA: SOURCES, LITERATURE AND SCIENCE

 

ANCIENT INDIA: SOURCES, LITERATURE AND SCIENCE

INFORMATION SOURCES FOR ANCIENT INDIA

Indian literary sources

SourceAuthorLanguageDateNotes
Veda SamhitasVariousSanskrit1st m.

BCE

Gives account of life of people in addition to philosophy, religion etc
ArthashastraChanakyaSanskrit4th c. BCECovers Mauryan period under Chandragupta Maurya

Treatise on statecraft, economy and military strategy

Sangam literatureVariousTamilc. 600 BCE – 300 CEPrimarily Dealt with everyday themes

Foreign literary sources

SourceAuthorLanguageDateNotes
IndikaMegasthenesGreek4th c. BCEAmbassador of Seleucus I to court of Chandragupta Maurya

Used by later writers Strabo and Arrian

Describes geography, politics, various kingdoms, caste system

IndicaArrianGreek1st c. CEConsidered one of most important sources about India

Covers travel of Alexander’s officer Nearchus from India to Babylon

Covers geography, esp. Indus and Ganges

Describes social structure

Describes seven castes, physical appearance, absence of slavery

Used Indika (Megasthenes) as source

GeographicaStraboGreek1st c. CEDescriptive history of people and places all over the world

Consists of 17 volumes of material

Fa-HienChineseAround 400 CETravelled to India/Ceylon to obtain Buddhist scriptures

Epigraphical sources

Note that more than 55% of epigraphical inscriptions in India are in Tamil

InscriptionLocationAttributed to

(date)

Notes
Indus valley inscriptionsIVCc. 2600 – 1900 BCEIndus script remains undeciphered
Edicts of AsokaAll over IndiaAsoka

3rd c. BCE

In Praktrit, Sanskrit, Greek

 

Heliodorus pillarBesnagar

(Madhya Pradesh)

c. 110 BCEIn Sanskrit (Brahmi)

Dedicated by Heliodorus to god Vasudeva

Heliodorus was the Ambassador of Indo-Greek king Antialcidas to court of Sunga king Bhagabhadra

Describes relationship b/w Sungas and Indo-Greeks

Hathigumpha incriptionUdayagiri

(Orissa)

Kharavela

(Kalinga)

(150 BCE)

In Prakrit (Brahmi script)

Main source of info about Kharavela

Mentions conflict with Demetrius

Mentions conflict with Uttarapatha

Rabatak inscriptionRabatak

(Afghanistan)

Kanishka

127-151 CE

In Bactrian (Greek script)

Describes Kushan dynasty

Halmidi inscriptionHalmidi

(Karnataka)

c. 450 CEOldest inscription in Kannada (Brahmi script)

LITERATURE IN ANCIENT INDIA

Important ancient Sanskrit literature

WorkCategoryAuthor

(date)

Notes
MahabharataEpicVyasa
RamayanaEpicValmiki
AshtadhyayiTreatise on grammarPanini

(5th -4th c. BCE)

One of the earliest known grammars of Sanskrit
NiruktaTreatise on grammarYaksa
MrichakatikaPlayShudraka

(2nd c. BCE)

Set in Pataliputra

Hindi film Utsav was based on this

Karnabhara, CharudattaPlayBhasa

(1st BCE – 4thCE)

Bhasa wrote about 13 plays

He is considered to be one of most important Sanskrit authors (after Kalidasa)

UrubhangaPlayBhasaBased on Mahabharata

Depicts story of Duryodhana after fight with Bhima

MadhyamavyayogaPlayBhasaBased on the Mahabharata
MalavikagnimitramPlayKalidasa

(4th -5th CE)

Gupta period

Tells the story of King Agnimitra falling in love with servant girl Malavika

Agnimitra was the son and successor to Pushyamitra Sunga

AbhijanasakuntalamPlayKalidasaTells story of king Dushyanta and his marriage to Shankuntala

Considered to be Kalidasa’s most popular play

VikramaorvasiyamPlayKalidasaStory of king Pururavas in love with celestial Urvashi
RaghuvamsaPoetryKalidasaKings of Raghu dynasty
KumarasambhavaPoetryKalidasaStory of birth of Karthikeya
RtusamharaPoetryKalidasaDescribes six seasons using context of love
MeghadutaPoetryKalidasaStory of a Yaksha sending a message to his lover through a cloud

One of Kalidasa’s most popular poems

RatnavaliPlayHarshavardhana

(590-647 CE)

Story of king Udayana and princess Ratnavali

Contains one of the earliest references to festival Holi

NaganandaPlayHarshavardhanaDescribes prince Jimutavahana’s self-sacrifice to save serpents
PriyadarsikaPlayHarshavardhana
KiratarjuniyaPoetryBharaviDescribes contest b/w Arjuna and lord Shiva
Shishupala VadhaPoetryMagha

Important ancient literature in Tamil

Note that Sangam literature itself contains about 2400 poems by more than 470 poets. For obvious reasons, not all of them can be listed here

WorkCategoryAuthorNotes
EttuthokaiPoetryVarious

(600 BCE-

300 BCE)

Part of Sangam literature

Ettuthokai contains 8 anthologies:

Ainkurunuru, Akananuru, Purananuru, Kalittokai, Kuruntokai, Narrinai, Paripatal, Patirrupattu

Each of these anthologies in turn contain hundreds of poems by multiple authors

Deals with two themes: Akam (personal life) and Puram (war, politics)

See here for more information on the Ettuthokai

PathupattuPoetryVariousPart of Sangam literature

Pathupattu contains 10 idylls (mid length books):

Tirumurugattruppatai, Kurinjipattu, Malaipatukatam, Maturaikkanji, Mullaipattu, Netunalvatai, Pattinappalai, Perumpanatrupatai, Porunaratruppatai, Sirupanatrupatai

Deals mainly with themes of nature

See here for more information on Pathupattu

TolkappiyamGrammarTolkappiyarEarliest available work of Tamil literature
AimperumkappiyamEpicsVariousCollection of five large narrative epics

The five epics were: Silappadhigaram, Manimegalai, Sivaka Chintamani, Valayapathi and Kundalakesi

Specific epics described below

SilappadhigaramEpicIlango Adigal

(1st c. CE)

Describes story of Kannagi in her quest to save husband Kovalan

Describes in detail life, politics, trade, settlements of Greeks etc

Story evolves in themes of three: three kingdoms, three heroes, three heroines etc

Considered one of most important ancient Tamil literature

ManimegalaiEpicSeethalai Sathanar

(1st-2nd c. CE)

Story of Manimegalai, daughter of Kovalan

Sequel to Silappadhigaram

Sivaka ChintamaniEpicTirutakkatevarStory of man who becomes king and then renounces throne
ValayapathiEpicUnknownWork lost
KundalakesiEpicNagakuthanarOriginal work lost, only fragments survive

Supposedly describes story of Buddhist monk Kundalakesi

TirukkuralEthicsThiruvalluvarCouplets of ethics

Contains 1330 couplets

Thirukkural remains the book translated into most number of languages in the world

SCIENCE IN ANCIENT INDIA

WorkSubjectAuthorNotes
Vedanga JyotishaAstrologyLagadha

(1st c. BCE)

Describes rules for tracking motion of sun and moon
YavanajatakaAstrologySphujidvaja

1st-2nd c. CE)

Translated it mean “Nativity as per the Greeks”

It is a collection of astrology-related ideas borrowed from Greek world

Gives rules for building horoscopes

Surya SiddhantaAstronomyEstablishes rules to determine motions of stellar objects
Paulisa Siddhanta

(Doctrine of Paul)

AstronomyBased on works of Paul of Alexandria

(c. 378 CE)

Romaka Siddhanta

(Doctrine of the Romans)

AstronomyBased on works of Rome

It is the only Indian work based on the tropical system

Vasishta SiddhantaAstronomyAttributed to sage Vasishta
PanchasiddhantikaAstronomyVarahamihira

(c. 550 CE)

Work that compares five treatises on astronomy viz. Surya Siddhanta, Paulisa Siddhanta, Romaka Siddhanta, Vasishta Siddhanta and Paitamaha Siddhanta
Sulba sutrasMathematicsBaudhayana (c. 800 BCE), Apasthamba (c. 600 BCE), Katyayana (c. 200 BCE)Baudhayana enumerated the Pythagoras theorem. He also described square root of 2 and geometric shapes such as squares and rectangles

Apasthamba and Katyayana developed these principles further

ChandahsastraMathematicsPingala

(4th-2nd c. BCE)

First known description of binary numeral system in the world

Also describes Pascal’s triangle, binomial theorem and Fibonacci numbers

AryabhatiyaAstronomy, mathematicsAryabhata

(c 522 CE)

Introduced decimal value notation

Describes heliocentric model of solar system

Explained lunar and solar eclipses

Gave duration of one year as 365 days 6 hrs 12 min 30 sec

Gave value of pi (3.1416)

Correctly calculated earth’s circumference as 24,835 miles

Aryabhata’s principles are still in use for fixing the Hindu calendar Panchanga

MahabhaskariyaMathematics, astronomyBhaskara I

(c. 600 – 680 CE)

Representation of numbers in positional system

Solved Wilson’s theorem and Pell equation

BrahmasputasiddhantaMathematics, astronomyBrahmagupta

(c. 630 CE)

Describes solution of linear equation

Solve system of simultaneous indeterminate equations

Sum of series

Introduced the concept of zero

Formula for cyclic quadrilaterals

Rebutted the idea that moon is farther from earth than the sun

 

 

couertesy-iashelp.com

 

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